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[0] Turner RS, DeLong MR, Corticostriatal activity in primary motor cortex of the macaque.J Neurosci 20:18, 7096-108 (2000 Sep 15)

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ref: -0 tags: nonlinear hebbian synaptic learning rules projection pursuit date: 12-12-2019 00:21 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-27690349 Nonlinear Hebbian Learning as a Unifying Principle in Receptive Field Formation

  • Here we show that the principle of nonlinear Hebbian learning is sufficient for receptive field development under rather general conditions.
  • The nonlinearity is defined by the neuron’s f-I curve combined with the nonlinearity of the plasticity function. The outcome of such nonlinear learning is equivalent to projection pursuit [18, 19, 20], which focuses on features with non-trivial statistical structure, and therefore links receptive field development to optimality principles.
  • Δwxh(g(w Tx))\Delta w \propto x h(g(w^T x)) where h is the hebbian plasticity term, and g is the neurons f-I curve (input-output relation), and x is the (sensory) input.
  • The relevant property of natural image statistics is that the distribution of features derived from typical localized oriented patterns has high kurtosis [5,6, 39]
  • Model is a generalized leaky integrate and fire neuron, with triplet STDP

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ref: -0 tags: artificial intelligence projection episodic memory reinforcement learning date: 08-15-2012 19:16 gmt revision:0 [head]

Projective simulation for artificial intelligence

  • Agent learns based on memory 'clips' which are combined using some pseudo-bayesian method to trigger actions.
    • These clips are learned from experience / observation.
    • Quote: "..more complex behavior seems to arise when an agent is able to “think for a while” before it “decides what to do next.” This means the agent somehow evaluates a given situation in the light of previous experience, whereby the type of evaluation is different from the execution of a simple reflex circuit"
    • Quote: "Learning is achieved by evaluating past experience, for example by simple reinforcement learning".
  • The forward exploration of learned action-stimulus patterns is seemingly a general problem-solving strategy (my generalization).
  • Pretty simple task:
    • Robot can only move left / right; shows a symbol to indicate which way it (might?) be going.

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ref: Kimura-1996.12 tags: putamen globus pallidus learning basal ganglia electrophysiology projection date: 10-03-2008 17:05 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-8985875 Neural information transferred from the putamen to the globus pallidus during learned movement in the monkey.

  • study of the physiology of the projection from the striatum to the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus.
  • Identified neurons which project from the striatum to pallidus via antridromic activation after stim to the GPe / GPi.
  • there were two classes of striatal neurons:
    • tonically active neurons (TANs, rate: 4-8hz)
      • TANs were never activated by antidromic stimulation. therefore, they probably do not project to the pallidus.
    • phasically active neurons (very low basal rate, high frequency discharge in relation to behavioral tasks
      • All PANs found projected to the globus pallidus.
      • PANs were responsive to movement or movement preparation. (or not responsive to the particular behaviors investigated)
        • the PANns that showed activity before movement initiation more frequently projected to GPi and not GPE (or both - need to look at the anatomy more).
      • PANs also show bursts of activity time-locked to the initiation of movement (e.g. time locked to a particular part of the movement).
      • no neurons with sensory response!
  • when they microstimulated in the putamen, a few pallidal neurons showed exitatory response; most showed inhibitory/supressive response.

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ref: Turner-2000.09 tags: M1 striatum corticostriatal projections caudate putamen date: 03-11-2007 05:27 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-10995857[0] Corticostriatal activity in primary motor cortex of the macaque.

  • corticostriatal neurons have markedly different properties than neurons that project to cerebral peduncle:
    • basal firing rate is very low
    • slow conduction velocities
    • premovement activity is small and highly directionally tuned
  • in comparison, cortical neurons which project to the peduncle show (mostly) muscle-related activity.
  • most likely the cerebrum transmits information in a very sparse way to the striatum.

____References____

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ref: Dum-2003.01 tags: cerebellum dentate_nucleus projections cerebrum prefrontal posterior_pareital M1 PM thalamus somatotopic date: 03-11-2007 04:42 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-12522208 An unfolded map of the cerebellar dentate nucleus and its projections to the cerebral cortex

  • the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum projects to (at least four sections of if not all) of the cerebral cortex in a spatially-organized way.
    • dentate nucleus projects via the ventral anterior (VA) nucleus of the thalamus
    • dentate nucleus receives projections from the lateral hemispheres of the cerebellum (neocerebellum), which receives extensive collaterals from the pyramidal tract.

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ref: Kita-1999.05 tags: globus pallidus GPe caudate putamen anatomy projection date: 03-11-2007 04:09 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-10380964 Monkey globus pallidus external segment neurons projecting to the neostriatum.

  • horseradish-peroxidase study in rhesus monkeys.
  • 30% of GPe neurons project to the neostriatum (caudate and putamen)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: mirror reflective projection lens design NEC optics date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.nec.co.jp/techrep/en/journal/g06/n03/060319.html

very neat - and I'm surprised that they put all of this on the web! you can almost make one of these yourself with the information within.