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ref: -2021 tags: synaptic imaging weights 2p oregon markov date: 12-29-2021 23:30 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

Distinct in vivo dynamics of excitatory synapses onto cortical pyramidal neurons and parvalbumin-positive interneurons

  • Joshua B.Melander, Aran Nayebi, Bart C.Jongbloets, Dale A.Fortin, Maozhen Qin, Surya Ganguli, Tianyi Mao, Haining Zhong
  • Cre-dependent mVenus labeled PSD-95, in both excitatory pyramidadl neurons & inhibitory PV interneurons.
  • morphology labeled with tdTomato
  • Longitudinal imaging of individual exictatoy post-synaptic densityies; estimated weight from fluorescence; examined spine appearance and disappearance
  • PV synapses were more stable over the 24-day period than synapses on pyramidal neurons.
  • Likewise, large synapses were more likely to remain over the imaging period.
  • Both followed log-normal distributions in 'strengths'
  • Changes were well modeled by a Markov process, which puts high probability on small changes.
  • But these changes are multiplicative (+ additive component in PV cells)

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ref: -0 tags: synaptic plasticity 2-photon imaging inhibition excitation spines dendrites synapses 2p date: 08-14-2020 01:35 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-22542188 Clustered dynamics of inhibitory synapses and dendritic spines in the adult neocortex.

  • Cre-recombinase-dependent labeling of postsynapitc scaffolding via Gephryn-Teal fluorophore fusion.
  • Also added Cre-eYFP to label the neurons
  • Electroporated in utero e16 mice.
    • Low concentration of Cre, high concentrations of Gephryn-Teal and Cre-eYFP constructs to attain sparse labeling.
  • Located the same dendrite imaged in-vivo in fixed tissue - !! - using serial-section electron microscopy.
  • 2230 dendritic spines and 1211 inhibitory synapses from 83 dendritic segments in 14 cells of 6 animals.
  • Some spines had inhibitory synapses on them -- 0.7 / 10um, vs 4.4 / 10um dendrite for excitatory spines. ~ 1.7 inhibitory
  • Suggest that the data support the idea that inhibitory inputs maybe gating excitation.
  • Furthermore, co-inervated spines are stable, both during mormal experience and during monocular deprivation.
  • Monocular deprivation induces a pronounced loss of inhibitory synapses in binocular cortex.

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ref: -0 tags: Na Ji 2p two photon fluorescent imaging pulse splitting damage bleaching date: 03-10-2020 21:44 gmt revision:6 [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-18204458 High-speed, low-photodamage nonlinear imaging using passive pulse splitters

  • Core idea: take a single pulse and spread it out to N=2 kN= 2^k pulses using reflections and delay lines.
  • Assume two optical processes, signal SI αS \propto I^{\alpha} and photobleaching/damage DI βD \propto I^{\beta} , β>α>1\beta \gt \alpha \gt 1
  • Then an NN pulse splitter requires N 11/αN^{1-1/\alpha} greater average power but reduces the damage by N 1β/α.N^{1-\beta/\alpha}.
  • At constant signal, the same NN pulse splitter requires N\sqrt{N} more power, consistent with two photon excitation (proportional to the square of the intensity: N pulses of N/N\sqrt{N}/N intensity, 1/N per pulse fluorescence, Σ1\Sigma \rightarrow 1 overall fluorescence.)
  • This allows for shorter dwell times, higher power at the sample, lower damage, slower photobleaching, and better SNR for fluorescently labeled slices.
  • Examine the list of references too, e.g. "Multiphoton multifocal microscopy exploiting a diffractive optical element" (2003)

  • In practice, a pulse picker is useful when power is limited and bleaching is not a problem (as is with GCaMP6x)

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ref: -0 tags: DNA paint FRET tag superresolution imaging oligos date: 02-20-2020 16:28 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Accelerated FRET-PAINT Microscopy

  • Well isn't that smart -- they use a FRET donor, which is free to associate and dissociate form a host DNA strand, and a more-permanently attached DNA acceptor, which blinks due to FRET, for superresolution imaging.
  • As FRET acceptors aren't subject to bleaching (or, perhaps, much less subject to bleaching), this eliminates that problem...
  • However, the light levels used ~1kW / cm^2, does damage the short DNA oligos, which interferes with reversible association.
  • Interestingly, CF488 donor showed very little photobleaching; DNA damage was instead the limiting problem.
    • Are dyes that bleach more slowly better at exporting their singlet oxygen (?) or aberrant excited states (?) to neighboring molecules?

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ref: -0 tags: dLight1 dopamine imaging Tian date: 12-05-2019 17:27 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-29853555 Ultrafast neuronal imaging of dopamine dynamics with designed genetically encoded sensors

  • cpGFP based sensor. ΔF/F~3\Delta F / F ~ 3 .

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ref: -0 tags: surface plasmon resonance voltage sensing antennas PEDOT imaging spectroscopy date: 12-05-2019 16:47 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Electro-plasmonic nanoantenna: A nonfluorescent optical probe for ultrasensitive label-free detection of electrophysiological signals

  • Use spectroscopy to measure extracellular voltage, via plasmon concentrated electrochromic effects in doped PEDOT.

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ref: -0 tags: multimode fiber imaging date: 11-15-2019 03:10 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-30588295 Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber

  • Oh wow wowww
  • Imaged through a 50um multimode optical fiber!
  • Multimode scattering matrix was inverted through a LC-SLM

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ref: -0 tags: adaptive optics sensorless retina fluorescence imaging optimization zernicke polynomials date: 11-15-2019 02:51 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-26819812 Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice

  • Idea: use backscattered and fluorescence light to optimize the confocal image through imperfect optics ... and the lens of the mouse eye.
    • Optimization was based on hill-climbing / line search of each Zernicke polynomial term for the deformable mirror. (The mirror had to be characterized beforehand, naturally).
    • No guidestar was needed!
  • Were able to resolve the dendritic processes of EGFP labeled Thy1 ganglion cells and Cx3 glia.

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ref: -2015 tags: PaRAC1 photoactivatable Rac1 synapse memory optogenetics 2p imaging mouse motor skill learning date: 10-30-2019 20:35 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-26352471 Labelling and optical erasure of synaptic memory traces in the motor cortex

  • Idea: use Rac1, which has been shown to induce spine shrinkage, coupled to a light-activated domain to allow for optogenetic manipulation of active synapses.
  • PaRac1 was coupled to a deletion mutant of PSD95, PSD delta 1.2, which concentrates at the postsynaptic site, but cannot bind to postsynaptic proteins, thus minimizing the undesirable effects of PSD-95 overexpression.
    • PSD-95 is rapidly degraded by proteosomes
    • This gives spatial selectivity.
  • They then exploited the dendritic targeting element (DTE) of Arc mRNA which is selectively targeted and translated in activiated dendritic segments in response to synaptic activation in an an NMDA receptor dependent manner.
    • Thereby giving temporal selectivity.
  • Construct is then PSD-PaRac1-DTE; this was tested on hippocampal slice cultures.
  • Improved sparsity and labelling further by driving it with the Arc promoter.
  • Motor learning is impaired in Arc KO mice; hence inferred that the induction of AS-PaRac1 by the Arc promoter would enhance labeling during learning-induced potentiation.
  • Delivered construct via in-utero electroporation.
  • Observed rotarod-induced learning; the PaRac signal decayed after two days, but the spine volume persisted in spines that showed Arc / DTE hence PA labeled activity.
  • Now, since they had a good label, performed rotarod training followed by (at variable delay) light pulses to activate Rac, thereby suppressing recently-active synapses.
    • Observed both a depression of behavioral performance.
    • Controlled with a second task; could selectively impair performance on one of the tasks based on ordering/timing of light activation.
  • The localized probe also allowed them to image the synapse populations active for each task, which were largely non-overlapping.

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ref: -2017 tags: two photon holographic imaging Arch optogenetics GCaMP6 date: 09-12-2019 19:24 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-28053310 Simultaneous high-speed imaging and optogenetic inhibition in the intact mouse brain.

  • Bovetti S1, Moretti C1, Zucca S1, Dal Maschio M1, Bonifazi P2,3, Fellin T1.
  • Image GCamp6 in either scanned mode (high resolution, slow) or holographically (SLM, redshirt 80x80 NeuroCCD, activate opsin Arch, simultaneously record juxtasomal action potentials.

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ref: -2013 tags: microscopy space bandwidth product imaging resolution UCSF date: 06-17-2019 14:45 gmt revision:0 [head]

How much information does your microscope transmit?

  • Typical objectives 1x - 5x, about 200 Mpix!

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ref: -0 tags: phosphorescence fluorescence magnetic imaging slicing adam cohen date: 05-29-2019 19:41 gmt revision:8 [7] [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [head]

A friend postulated using the triplet state phosphorescence as a magnetically-modulatable dye. E.g. magnetically slice a scattering biological sample, rather than slicing optically (light sheet, 2p) or mechanically. After a little digging:

I'd imagine that it should be possible to design a molecule -- a protein cage, perhaps a (fully unsaturated) terpine -- which isolates the excited state from oxygen quenching.

Adam Cohen at Harvard has been working a bit on this very idea, albeit with fluorescence not phosphorescence --

  • Optical imaging through scattering media via magnetically modulated fluorescence (2010)
    • The two species, pyrene and dimethylaniline are in solution.
    • Dimethylaniline absorbs photons and transfers an electron to pyrene to produce a singlet radical pair.
    • The magnetic field represses conversion of this singlet into a triplet; when two singlet electrons combine, they produce exciplex fluorescence.
  • Addition of an aliphatic-ether 12-O-2 linker improves things significantly --
  • Mapping Nanomagnetic Fields Using a Radical Pair Reaction (2011)
  • Which can be used with a 2p microscope:
  • Two-photon imaging of a magneto-fluorescent indicator for 3D optical magnetometry (2015)
    • Notably, use decay kinetics of the excited state to yield measurements that are insensitive to photobleaching, indicator concentration, or local variations in optical excitation or collection efficiency. (As opposed to ΔF/F\Delta F / F )
    • Used phenanthrene (3 aromatic rings, not 4 in pyrene) as the excited electron acceptor, dimethylaniline again as the photo-electron generator.
    • Clear description:
      • A molecule with a singlet ground state absorbs a photon.
      • The photon drives electron transfer from a donor moiety to an acceptor moiety (either inter or intra molecular).
      • The electrons [ground state and excited state, donor] become sufficiently separated so that their spins do not interact, yet initially they preserve the spin coherence arising from their starting singlet state.
      • Each electron experiences a distinct set of hyperfine couplings to it's surrounding protons (?) leading to a gradual loss of coherence and intersystem crossing (ISC) into a triplet state.
      • An external magnetic field can lock the precession of both electrons to the field axis, partially preserving coherence and supressing ISC.
      • In some chemical systems, the triplet state is non-fluorescence, whereas the singlet pair can recombine and emit a photon.
      • Magnetochemical effects are remarkable because they arise at a magnetic field strengths comparable to hyperfine energy (typically 1-10mT).
        • Compare this to the Zeeman effect, where overt splitting is at 0.1T.
    • phenylanthrene-dimethylaniline was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF). The solution was carefully degassed in nitrogen to prevent molecular oxygen quenching.

Yet! Magnetic field effects do exist in solution:

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ref: -2019 tags: three photon imaging visual cortex THG chirp NOPA mice GCaMP6 MIT date: 03-01-2019 18:46 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-30635577 Functional imaging of visual cortical layers and subplate in awake mice with optimized three photon microscopy

  • Murat Yildirim, Hiroki Sugihara, Peter T.C. So & Mriganka Sur'
  • Used a fs Ti:Saphirre 16W pump into a non-colinear optical parametric amplifier (both from Spectra-Physics) to generate the 1300nm light.
  • Used pulse compensation to get the pulse width at the output of the objective to 40 fS.
    • Three-photon cross section is inverse quadratic in pulse width:
    • NP 3δ(τR) 2(NA 22hcλ) 3 N \sim \frac{P^3 \delta}{(\tau R)^2} (\frac{NA^2}{2hc\lambda})^3
    • P is power, δ\delta is 3p cross-section, τ\tau is pulse width, R repetition rate, NA is the numerical aperture (sixth power of NA!!!), h c and λ\lambda Planks constant, speed of light, and wavelength respectively.
  • Optimized excitation per depth by monitoring damage levels. varied from 0.5nJ to 5 nJ.
  • Imaged up to 1.5mm deep! All the way to the white matter / subplate.
  • Allegedly used a custom scan and tube lens to minimize aberrations in the excitation path (hence improve 3p excitation)
  • Layer 5 neurons are more broadly tuned for orientation than other layers. But the data is not dramatic.
  • Used straightforward metrics for tuning, using a positive and negative bump gaussian fit, then vector averaging to get global orientation selectivity.
  • Interesting that the variance between layers seems higher than between mice.

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ref: -2015 tags: CWEETS amplified Fourier imaging raman amplification date: 02-19-2019 06:46 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Amplified dispersive Fourier-Transform Imaging for Ultrafast Displacement sensing and Barcode Reading

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ref: -2011 tags: HiLo speckle imaging confocal boston university optical sectioning date: 02-19-2019 06:18 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-21280920 Optically sectioned in vivo imaging with speckle illumination HiLo microscopy

  • Ah, brilliant! Illuminate a sample with a speckle pattern from a laser, and use this to optically section the data -- the contrast of the speckle pattern shows how in focus the sample is.
    • Hanece, the contrast indicates the in-focus vs out-of-focus ratio in a region.
  • The speckle statistics are invariant even in a scattering media, as scattering only further randomizes an already random laser phase front. (Within some limits.)
  • HiLo microscopy involves illuminating with a speckle pattern, then illuminating with standard uniform illumination, resulting in a diffraction-limited optically sectioned image. PMID-18709098
  • Algorithm is :
    • Take the speckle image and subtract the uniform image δI\delta I
    • Bandpass δI\delta I
    • Measure the standard deviation of the δI\delta I to get a weighting function C δs 2C^2_{\delta s}
    • Debias this estimate based on sensor..
    • Generate low-passed image from the weighted uniform image, LP[C δsI u] LP[C_{\delta s} I_u] , and high-pass from the difference HP=1LPHP = 1 - LP
    • Resultand image is a weighted sum of highpassed and lowpassed images.
  • Looks about as good as confocal.
  • Cited by...

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ref: -0 tags: Airy light sheet microscopy attenuation compensation LSM imaging date: 02-19-2019 04:51 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Light-sheet microscopy with attenuation-compensated propagation-invariant beams

  • Ah ... beautiful illustration of the airy light sheet concept.
  • In practice, used a LCOS SLM to generate the beam (as .. phase matters!) plus an AOM to scan the beam.
    • Microscope can operate either in SPIM (single plane imaging microscope) or DSLM (digital scanning light sheet microscope),
  • Improves signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (not sure why they don't use SNR..?)

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ref: -2017 tags: calcium imaging seeded iterative demixing light field microscopy mouse cortex hippocampus date: 02-13-2019 22:44 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-28650477 Video rate volumetric Ca2+ imaging across cortex using seeded iterative demixing (SID) microscopy

  • Tobias Nöbauer, Oliver Skocek, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Lukas Weilguny, Francisca Martínez Traub, Maxim I Molodtsov & Alipasha Vaziri
  • Cell-scale imaging at video rates of hundreds of GCaMP6 labeled neurons with light-field imaging followed by computationally-efficient deconvolution and iterative demixing based on non-negative factorization in space and time.
  • Utilized a hybrid light-field and 2p microscope, but didn't use the latter to inform the SID algorithm.
  • Algorithm:
    • Remove motion artifacts
    • Time iteration:
      • Compute the standard deviation versus time (subtract mean over time, measure standard deviance)
      • Deconvolve standard deviation image using Richardson-Lucy algo, with non-negativity, sparsity constraints, and a simulated PSF.
      • Yields hotspots of activity, putative neurons.
      • These neuron lcoations are convolved with the PSF, thereby estimating its ballistic image on the LFM.
      • This is converted to a binary mask of pixels which contribute information to the activity of a given neuron, a 'footprint'
        • Form a matrix of these footprints, p * n, S 0S_0 (p pixels, n neurons)
      • Also get the corresponding image data YY , p * t, (t time)
      • Solve: minimize over T ||YST|| 2|| Y - ST||_2 subject to T0T \geq 0
        • That is, find a non-negative matrix of temporal components TT which predicts data YY from masks SS .
    • Space iteration:
      • Start with the masks again, SS , find all sets O kO^k of spatially overlapping components s is_i (e.g. where footprints overlap)
      • Extract the corresponding data columns t it_i of T (from temporal step above) from O kO^k to yield T kT^k . Each column corresponds to temporal data corresponding to the spatial overlap sets. (additively?)
      • Also get the data matrix Y kY^k that is image data in the overlapping regions in the same way.
      • Minimize over S kS^k ||Y kS kT k|| 2|| Y^k - S^k T^k||_2
      • Subject to S k>=0S^k >= 0
        • That is, solve over the footprints S kS^k to best predict the data from the corresponding temporal components T kT^k .
        • They also impose spatial constraints on this non-negative least squares problem (not explained).
    • This process repeats.
    • allegedly 1000x better than existing deconvolution / blind source segmentation algorithms, such as those used in CaImAn

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ref: -0 tags: superresolution imaging scanning lens nanoscale date: 02-04-2019 20:34 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-27934860 Scanning superlens microscopy for non-invasive large field-of-view visible light nanoscale imaging

  • Recently, the diffraction barrier has been surpassed by simply introducing dielectrics with a micro-scale spherical configuration when using conventional optical microscopes by transforming evanescent waves into propagating waves. 18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30
  • The resolution of this superlens-based microscopy has been decreased to ∼50 nm (ref. 26) from an initial resolution of ∼200 nm (ref. 21).
  • This method can be further enhanced to ∼25 nm when coupled with a scanning laser confocal microscope 31.
  • It has achieved fast development in biological applications, as the sub-diffraction-limited resolution of high-index liquid-immersed microspheres has now been demonstrated23,32, enabling its application in the aqueous environment required to maintain biological activity.
  • Microlens is a 57 um diameter BaTiO3 microsphere, resolution of lambda / 6.3 under partial and inclined illumination
  • Microshpere is in contact with the surface during imaging, by gluing it to the cantilever tip of an AFM.
  • Get an image with the microsphere-lens, which improves imaging performance by ~ 200x. (with a loss in quality, naturally).

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ref: -0 tags: photoacoustic tomography mouse imaging q-switched laser date: 05-11-2017 05:23 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Single-impulse panoramic photoacoustic computed tomography of small-animal whole-body dynamics at high spatiotemporal resolution

  • Used Q-switched Nd:YAG and Ti:Sapphire lasers to illuminate mice axially (from the top, through a diffuser and conical lens), exciting the photoacuostic effect, from which they were able to image at 125um resolution a full slice of the mouse.
    • I'm surprised at their mode of illumination -- how do they eliminate the out-of-plane photoacoustic effect?
  • Images look low contrast, but structures, e.g. cortical vasculature, are visible.
  • Can image at the rep rate of the laser (50 Hz), and thereby record cardiac and pulmonary rhythms.
  • Suggest that the photoacoustic effect can be used to image brain activity, but spatial and temporal resolution are limited.

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ref: -0 tags: photoacoustic tomography mouse imaging q-switched laser date: 05-11-2017 05:21 gmt revision:0 [head]

Single-impulse panoramic photoacoustic computed tomography of small-animal whole-body dynamics at high spatiotemporal resolution

  • Used Q-switched Nd:YAG and Ti:Sapphire lasers to illuminate mice axially, exciting the photoacuostic effect, from which they were able to image at 125um resolution a full slice of the mouse.
  • Images look low contrast, but structures, e.g. cortical vasculature, are visible.
  • Can image at the rep rate of the laser (50 Hz), and thereby record cardiac and pulmonary rhythms.
  • Suggest that the photoacoustic effect can be used to image brain activity, but spatial and temporal resolution are limited.

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ref: -0 tags: super resolution imaging PALM STORM fluorescence date: 09-21-2016 05:57 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-23900251 Parallel super-resolution imaging

  • Christopher J Rowlands, Elijah Y S Yew, and Peter T C So
  • Though this is a brief Nature intro article, I found it to be more usefully clear than the wikipedia articles on super-resolution techniques.
  • STORM and PALM seek to stochastically switch fluorophores between emission and dark states, and are parallel but stochastic; STED and RESOLFT use high-intensity donut beams to stimulate emission (STED) or photobleach (RESOLFT) fluorophores outside of an arbitrarily-small location.
    • All need gaussian-fitting to estimate emitter location from the point-spread function.
  • This article comments on a clever way of making 1e5 donuts for parallel (as opposed to rastered) STED / RESOLFT.
  • I doubt stetting up a STED microscope is at all easy; to get these resolutions, everything must be still to a few nm!

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ref: -0 tags: Anna Roe optogenetics artificial dura monkeys intrinisic imaging date: 09-30-2013 19:08 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-23761700 Optogenetics through windows on the brain in nonhuman primates

  • technique paper.
  • placed over the visual cortex.
  • Injected virus through the artificial dura -- micropipette, not CVD.
  • Strong expression:
  • See also: PMID-19409264 (Boyden, 2009)

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ref: -0 tags: brain micromotion magnetic resonance imaging date: 01-28-2013 01:38 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-7972766 Brain and cerebrospinal fluid motion: real-time quantification with M-mode MR imaging.

  • Measured brain motion via a clever MR protocol. (beyond my present understanding...)
  • ventricles move at up to 1mm/sec
  • In the Valsava maneuver the brainstem can move 2-3mm.
  • Coughing causes upswing of the CSF.

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ref: -0 tags: optical imaging neural recording diamond magnetic date: 01-02-2013 03:44 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-22574249 High spatial and temporal resolution wide-field imaging of neuron activity using quantum NV-diamond.

  • yikes: In this work we consider a fundamentally new form of wide-field imaging for neuronal networks based on the nanoscale magnetic field sensing properties of optically active spins in a diamond substrate.
  • Cultured neurons.
  • NV = nitrogen-vacancy defect centers.
    • "The NV centre is a remarkable optical defect in diamond which allows discrimination of its magnetic sublevels through its fluorescence under illumination. "
    • We show that the NV detection system is able to non-invasively capture the transmembrane potential activity in a series of near real-time images, with spatial resolution at the level of the individual neural compartments.
  • Did not actually perform neural measurements -- used a 10um microwire with mA of current running through it.
    • I would imagine that actual neurons have far less current!

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ref: -0 tags: neural imaging recording shot noise redshirt date: 01-02-2013 02:20 gmt revision:0 [head]


  • Shot Noise: The limit of accuracy with which light can be measured is set by the shot noise arising from the statistical nature of photon emission and detection.
    • If an ideal light source emits an average of N photons/ms, the RMS deviation in the number emitted is N\sqrt N .
    • At high intensities this ratio NN\frac{N}{\sqrt N} is large and thus small changes in intensity can be detected. For example, at 10^10 photons/ms a fractional intensity change of 0.1% can be measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 100.
    • On the other hand, at low intensities this ratio of intensity divided by noise is small and only large signals can be detected. For example, at 10^4 photons/msec the same fractional change of 0.1% can be measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 only after averaging 100 trials.

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ref: Grutzendler-2011.09 tags: two-photon imaging in-vivo neurons recording dendrites spines date: 01-03-2012 01:02 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-21880826[0] http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2011/9/pdb.prot065474.full?rss=1

  • Excellent source of information and references. Go CSH!
  • Possible to image up to 400um deep. PMID-12490949[1]
  • People have used TPLSM imaging for years in mice. PMID-19946265[2]


[0] Grutzendler J, Yang G, Pan F, Parkhurst CN, Gan WB, Transcranial two-photon imaging of the living mouse brain.Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2011:9, no Pages (2011 Sep 1)
[1] Grutzendler J, Kasthuri N, Gan WB, Long-term dendritic spine stability in the adult cortex.Nature 420:6917, 812-6 (2002 Dec 19-26)
[2] Yang G, Pan F, Gan WB, Stably maintained dendritic spines are associated with lifelong memories.Nature 462:7275, 920-4 (2009 Dec 17)

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ref: notes-0 tags: two-photon laser imaging fluorescence lifetime imaging FRET GFP RFP date: 01-21-2008 17:23 gmt revision:0 [head]