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[0] Is this the bionic man?Nature 442:7099, 109 (2006 Jul 13)[1] Hochberg LR, Serruya MD, Friehs GM, Mukand JA, Saleh M, Caplan AH, Branner A, Chen D, Penn RD, Donoghue JP, Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia.Nature 442:7099, 164-71 (2006 Jul 13)[2] Santhanam G, Ryu SI, Yu BM, Afshar A, Shenoy KV, A high-performance brain-computer interface.Nature 442:7099, 195-8 (2006 Jul 13)[3] Shenoy KV, Meeker D, Cao S, Kureshi SA, Pesaran B, Buneo CA, Batista AP, Mitra PP, Burdick JW, Andersen RA, Neural prosthetic control signals from plan activity.Neuroreport 14:4, 591-6 (2003 Mar 24)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: intrinsic evolution FPGA GPU optimization algorithm genetic date: 01-27-2013 22:27 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]


  • http://evolutioninmaterio.com/ - using FPGAs in intrinsic evolution, e.g. the device is actually programmed and tested.
  • - Adrian Thompson's homepage. There are many PDFs of his work on his homepage.
  • Parallel genetic algorithms on programmable graphics hardware
    • basically deals with optimizing mutation and fitness evaluation using the parallel arcitecture of a GPU: larger populations can be evaluated at one time.
    • does not concern the intrinsic evolution of algorithms to the GPU, as in the Adrian's work.
    • uses a linear conguent generator to produce random numbers.
    • used a really simple problem: Colville minimization problem which need only search through a four-dimensional space.
  • Cellular genetic algoritms and local search for 3-SAT problem on Graphic Hardware
    • concerning SAT: satisfiabillity technique: " many practical problems, such as graph coloring, job-shop scheduling, and real-world scheduling can be represented as a SAT problem.
    • SAT-3 refers to the length of the search clause. length 3 is apparently very hard..
    • they use a combination of greedy search (flip the bit that increases the fitness the largest ammount) and random-walk via point mutations to keep the algorithm away from local minima.
    • also use cellular genetic algorithm which works better on a GPU): select the optimal neignbor, not global, individual.
    • only used a GeForce 6200 gpu, but it was still 5x faster than a p4 2.4ghz.
  • Evolution of a robot controller using cartesian genetic programming
    • cartesian programming has many advantages over traditional tree based methods - e.g. blot-free evolution & faster evolution through neutral search.
    • cartesian programming is characterized by its encoding of a graph as a string of integers that represent the functions and connections between graph nodes, and program inputs and outputs.
      • this encoding was developed in the course of evolving electronic circuits, e.g. above ?
      • can encode a non-connected graph. the genetic material that is not utilized is analogous to biological junk DNA.
    • even in converged populations, small mutations can produce large changes in phenotypic behavior.
    • in this work he only uses directed graphs - there are no cycles & an organized flow of information.
    • mentions automatically defined functions - what is this??
    • used diffusion to define the fitness values of particular locations in the map. the fewer particles there eventually were in a grid location, the higher the fitness value of the robot that managed to get there.
  • Hardware evolution: on the nature of artifically evolved circuits - doctoral dissertation.
    • because evolved circuits utilize the parasitic properties of devices, they have little tolerance of the value of components. Reverse engineering of the circuits evolved to improve tolerance is not easy.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: basal ganglia dopamine reinforcement learning Graybeil date: 03-06-2012 18:14 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-16271465 The basal ganglia: learning new tricks and loving it

  • BG analogous to the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which is necessary for song learning in young birds. Requires lots of practice and feedback. Studies suggest e.g. that neural activity in the AFP is correlated with song variability, and that the AFP can adjust ongoing activity in effector motor pathways.
    • LMAN = presumed homolog of cortex that receives basal ganglia outflow. Blockade of outflow from LMAN to RA creates stereotyped singing.
  • To see accurately what is happening, it's necessary to record simultaneously, or in close temporal contiguity, striatal and cortical neurons during learning.
    • Pasupathy and biller showed that changes occur in the striatum than cortex during learning.
  • She cites lots of papers -- there has been a good bit of work on this, and the theories are coming together. I should be careful not to dismiss or negatively weight things.
  • Person and Perkel [48] reports that in songbirds, the analogous GPi to thalamus pathway induces IPSPs as well as rebound spikes with highly selective timing.
  • Reference Levenesque and Parent PMID-16087877 who find elaborate column-like arrays of striatonigral terminations in the SNr, not in the dopamine-containing SNpc.

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ref: bookmark-3000 tags: DBS refs date: 03-05-2012 17:08 gmt revision:9 [8] [7] [6] [5] [4] [3] [head]

DBS refs (for translating from word to my latex-based build system):

  1. PMID-12450039 Abosch A, Hutchison WD, Saint-Cyr JA, Dostrovsky JO, Lozano AM (2002) Movement-related neurons of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson disease. Journal of neurosurgery 97:1167-1172.
  2. PMID-2723733 Aertsen AM, Gerstein GL, Habib MK, Palm G (1989) Dynamics of neuronal firing correlation: modulation of "effective connectivity". Journal of neurophysiology 61:900-917.
  3. PMID-15601936 Amirnovin R, Williams ZM, Cosgrove GR, Eskandar EN (2004) Visually guided movements suppress subthalamic oscillations in Parkinson's disease patients. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24:11302-11306.
  4. PMID-18634849 Amtage F, Henschel K, Schelter B, Vesper J, Timmer J, Lucking CH, Hellwig B (2008) Tremor-correlated neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinsonian patients. Neuroscience letters 442:195-199.
  5. PMID-9219885 Awiszus F (1997) Spike train analysis. Journal of neuroscience methods 74:155-166.
  6. PMID-11948769 Benazzouz A, Breit S, Koudsie A, Pollak P, Krack P, Benabid AL (2002) Intraoperative microrecordings of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 17 Suppl 3:S145-149.
  7. PMID-15255250 Brodkey JA, Tasker RR, Hamani C, McAndrews MP, Dostrovsky JO, Lozano AM (2004) Tremor cells in the human thalamus: differences among neurological disorders. Journal of neurosurgery 101:43-47.
  8. PMID-11863600 Davidsen J, Schuster HG (2002) Simple model for 1/f(alpha) noise. Physical review E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics 65:026120.
  9. PMID-9827589 Deuschl G, Bain P, Brin M (1998) Consensus statement of the Movement Disorder Society on Tremor. Ad Hoc Scientific Committee. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 13 Suppl 3:2-23.
  10. PMID-16943402 Deuschl G et al. (2006) A randomized trial of deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. The New England journal of medicine 355:896-908.
  11. PMID-11685413 Ghazanfar AA, Krupa DJ, Nicolelis MA (2001) Role of cortical feedback in the receptive field structure and nonlinear response properties of somatosensory thalamic neurons. Experimental brain research Experimentelle Hirnforschung Experimentation cerebrale 141:88-100.
  12. PMID-12626014 Guillery RW, Sherman SM (2002) The thalamus as a monitor of motor outputs. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences 357:1809-1821.
  13. PMID-16120664 Gutierrez R, Carmena JM, Nicolelis MA, Simon SA (2006) Orbitofrontal ensemble activity monitors licking and distinguishes among natural rewards. Journal of neurophysiology 95:119-133.
  14. PMID-15317839 Hua SE, Lenz FA (2005) Posture-related oscillations in human cerebellar thalamus in essential tremor are enabled by voluntary motor circuits. Journal of neurophysiology 93:117-127.
  15. PMID-9665587 {1020} Kennedy PR, Bakay RA (1998) Restoration of neural output from a paralyzed patient by a direct brain connection. Neuroreport 9:1707-1711.
  16. PMID-15473196 Kennedy PR, Kirby MT, Moore MM, King B, Mallory A (2004) Computer control using human intracortical local field potentials. IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 12:339-344.
  17. PMID-11391740 Koller WC, Lyons KE, Wilkinson SB, Troster AI, Pahwa R (2001) Long-term safety and efficacy of unilateral deep brain stimulation of the thalamus in essential tremor. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 16:464-468.
  18. PMID-14663050 Kumar R, Lozano AM, Sime E, Lang AE (2003) Long-term follow-up of thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential and parkinsonian tremor. Neurology 61:1601-1604.
  19. PMID-7823093 Lebedev MA, Denton JM, Nelson RJ (1994) Vibration-entrained and premovement activity in monkey primary somatosensory cortex. Journal of neurophysiology 72:1654-1673.
  20. PMID-21779720 Lebedev MA, Tate AJ, Hanson TL, Li Z, O'Doherty JE, Winans JA, Ifft PJ, Zhuang KZ, Fitzsimmons NA, Schwarz DA, Fuller AM, An JH, Nicolelis MA (2011) Future developments in brain-machine interface research. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66 Suppl 1:25-32.
  21. PMID-11929926 see {1099}
  22. PMID-2276045 Lenz FA, Kwan HC, Dostrovsky JO, Tasker RR, Murphy JT, Lenz YE (1990) Single unit analysis of the human ventral thalamic nuclear group. Activity correlated with movement. Brain : a journal of neurology 113 ( Pt 6):1795-1821.
  23. PMID-8032863 Lenz FA, Kwan HC, Martin RL, Tasker RR, Dostrovsky JO, Lenz YE (1994) Single unit analysis of the human ventral thalamic nuclear group. Tremor-related activity in functionally identified cells. Brain : a journal of neurology 117 ( Pt 3):531-543.
  24. PMID-3346719 Lenz FA, Tasker RR, Kwan HC, Schnider S, Kwong R, Murayama Y, Dostrovsky JO, Murphy JT (1988) Single unit analysis of the human ventral thalamic nuclear group: correlation of thalamic "tremor cells" with the 3-6 Hz component of parkinsonian tremor. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 8:754-764.
  25. PMID-11027240 Levy R, Hutchison WD, Lozano AM, Dostrovsky JO (2000) High-frequency synchronization of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus of parkinsonian patients with limb tremor. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 20:7766-7775.
  26. PMID-12023310 see {829} Levy R, Ashby P, Hutchison WD, Lang AE, Lozano AM, Dostrovsky JO (2002) Dependence of subthalamic nucleus oscillations on movement and dopamine in Parkinson's disease. Brain : a journal of neurology 125:1196-1209.
  27. PMID-10947834 Magarinos-Ascone CM, Figueiras-Mendez R, Riva-Meana C, Cordoba-Fernandez A (2000) Subthalamic neuron activity related to tremor and movement in Parkinson's disease. The European journal of neuroscience 12:2597-2607.
  28. PMID-10717435 Magnin M, Morel A, Jeanmonod D (2000) Single-unit analysis of the pallidum, thalamus and subthalamic nucleus in parkinsonian patients. Neuroscience 96:549-564.
  29. PMID-11157565 Marsden JF, Limousin-Dowsey P, Ashby P, Pollak P, Brown P (2001) Subthalamic nucleus, sensorimotor cortex and muscle interrelationships in Parkinson's disease. Brain : a journal of neurology 124:378-388.
  30. PMID-11201755 Nicolelis MA (2001) Actions from thoughts. Nature 409:403-407.
  31. PMID-19543222 Nicolelis MA, Lebedev MA (2009) Principles of neural ensemble physiology underlying the operation of brain-machine interfaces. Nature reviews Neuroscience 10:530-540.
  32. PMID-9781530 Ondo W, Jankovic J, Schwartz K, Almaguer M, Simpson RK (1998) Unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation for refractory essential tremor and Parkinson's disease tremor. Neurology 51:1063-1069.
  33. PMID-7711765 see {1091} Parent A, Hazrati LN (1995) Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. II. The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidum in basal ganglia circuitry. Brain research Brain research reviews 20:128-154.
  34. PMID-18164493 Patil PG, Turner DA (2008) The development of brain-machine interface neuroprosthetic devices. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 5:137-146.
  35. PMID-15214971 Patil PG, Carmena JM, Nicolelis MA, Turner DA (2004) Ensemble recordings of human subcortical neurons as a source of motor control signals for a brain-machine interface. Neurosurgery 55:27-35; discussion 35-28.
  36. PMID-15973409 Quiroga RQ, Reddy L, Kreiman G, Koch C, Fried I (2005) Invariant visual representation by single neurons in the human brain. Nature 435:1102-1107.
  37. PMID-10197761 Raeva S, Vainberg N, Tikhonov Y, Tsetlin I (1999) Analysis of evoked activity patterns of human thalamic ventrolateral neurons during verbally ordered voluntary movements. Neuroscience 88:377-392.
  38. PMID-11522580 Rodriguez-Oroz MC, Rodriguez M, Guridi J, Mewes K, Chockkman V, Vitek J, DeLong MR, Obeso JA (2001) The subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease: somatotopic organization and physiological characteristics. Brain : a journal of neurology 124:1777-1790.
  39. PMID-15975946 see {1120}-8 Rodriguez-Oroz MC et al. (2005) Bilateral deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a multicentre study with 4 years follow-up. Brain : a journal of neurology 128:2240-2249.
  40. PMID-12815658 Theodosopoulos PV, Marks WJ, Jr., Christine C, Starr PA (2003) Locations of movement-related cells in the human subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 18:791-798.
  41. PMID-16160097 Ventura V, Cai C, Kass RE (2005a) Statistical assessment of time-varying dependency between two neurons. Journal of neurophysiology 94:2940-2947.
  42. PMID-16160096 Ventura V, Cai C, Kass RE (2005b) Trial-to-trial variability and its effect on time-varying dependency between two neurons. Journal of neurophysiology 94:2928-2939.
  43. PMID-15563555 Wiest MC, Bentley N, Nicolelis MA (2005) Heterogeneous integration of bilateral whisker signals by neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of awake rats. Journal of neurophysiology 93:2966-2973.
  44. PMID-15635456 Williams ZM, Neimat JS, Cosgrove GR, Eskandar EN (2005) Timing and direction selectivity of subthalamic and pallidal neurons in patients with Parkinson disease. Experimental brain research Experimentelle Hirnforschung Experimentation cerebrale 162:407-416.
  45. PMID-9466402 Zirh TA, Lenz FA, Reich SG, Dougherty PM (1998) Patterns of bursting occurring in thalamic cells during parkinsonian tremor. Neuroscience 83:107-121.

  1. bibtex:Batschelet Batschelet E (1981) Circular statistics in biology. London ; New York: Academic Press.
  2. {318} Carmena JM, Lebedev MA, Crist RE, O'Doherty JE, Santucci DM, Dimitrov DF, Patil PG, Henriquez CS, Nicolelis MA (2003) Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates. PLoS biology 1:E42.
  3. {690} Chapin JK, Moxon KA, Markowitz RS, Nicolelis MA (1999) Real-time control of a robot arm using simultaneously recorded neurons in the motor cortex. Nature neuroscience 2:664-670.
  4. {329} Fetz EE (2007) Volitional control of neural activity: implications for brain-computer interfaces. The Journal of physiology 579:571-579.
  5. {943} Fuentes R, Petersson P, Siesser WB, Caron MG, Nicolelis MA (2009) Spinal cord stimulation restores locomotion in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Science 323:1578-1582.
  6. {711} Gradinaru V, Mogri M, Thompson KR, Henderson JM, Deisseroth K (2009) Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry. Science 324:354-359.
  7. {268} Kennedy PR, Bakay RA, Moore MM, Adams K, Goldwaithe J (2000) Direct control of a computer from the human central nervous system. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 8:198-202.
  8. bibtex:Kuiper Kuiper NH (1962) Tests concerning random points on a circle. Proc Kon Ned Akad Wetensch 63:38-47.
  9. {934} Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA (2006) Brain-machine interfaces: past, present and future. Trends in neurosciences 29:536-546.
  10. bibtex:Oppenheim Oppenheim AV, Schafer RW (1975) Digital signal processing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,: Prentice-Hall.
  11. {317} Wessberg J, Stambaugh CR, Kralik JD, Beck PD, Laubach M, Chapin JK, Kim J, Biggs SJ, Srinivasan MA, Nicolelis MA (2000) Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates. Nature 408:361-365.
  12. bibtex:Zar Zar JH (1999) Biostatistical analysis, 4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: neuroengineering blog date: 01-06-2012 03:10 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

http://infinite-interface.net/ -- a neuroscientist at University of Southern California. Many thoughtful, informative posts.

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ref: bookmark-2007.08 tags: donoghue cyberkinetics BMI braingate date: 01-06-2012 03:09 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

images/425_1.pdf August 2007

  • provides more extensive details on the braingate system.
  • including, their automatic impedance tester (5mv, 10pa)
  • and the automatic spike sorter.
  • the different tests that were required, such as accelerated aging in 50-70 deg C saline baths
  • the long path to market - $30 - $40 million more (of course, they have since abandoned the product).

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ref: bookmarks-0 tags: EMG schematic amplifier prosthetic myopen date: 01-03-2012 23:08 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: machine_learning research_blog parallel_computing bayes active_learning information_theory reinforcement_learning date: 12-31-2011 19:30 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

hunch.net interesting posts:

  • debugging your brain - how to discover what you don't understand. a very intelligent viewpoint, worth rereading + the comments. look at the data, stupid
    • quote: how to represent the problem is perhaps even more important in research since human brains are not as adept as computers at shifting and using representations. Significant initial thought on how to represent a research problem is helpful. And when it’s not going well, changing representations can make a problem radically simpler.
  • automated labeling - great way to use a human 'oracle' to bootstrap us into good performance, esp. if the predictor can output a certainty value and hence ask the oracle all the 'tricky questions'.
  • The design of an optimal research environment
    • Quote: Machine learning is a victim of it’s common success. It’s hard to develop a learning algorithm which is substantially better than others. This means that anyone wanting to implement spam filtering can do so. Patents are useless here—you can’t patent an entire field (and even if you could it wouldn’t work).
  • More recently: http://hunch.net/?p=2016
    • Problem is that online course only imperfectly emulate the social environment of a college, which IMHO are useflu for cultivating diligence.
  • The unrealized potential of the research lab Quote: Muthu Muthukrishnan says “it’s the incentives”. In particular, people who invent something within a research lab have little personal incentive in seeing it’s potential realized so they fail to pursue it as vigorously as they might in a startup setting.
    • The motivation (money!) is just not there.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: EMG SNR bits delsys differential amplifier bandwidth date: 12-07-2011 03:15 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]


  • on a very good EMG recording the signal-to-noise is 65db ~= 11 bits
  • dynamic range of 5uv to 10mv.
  • differential measurement essential.
  • googling 'EMG bandwidth' yields something around 20-500hz. study of this question
  • delsys wireless EMG system & logger - uses WLAN to transmit the data (up to 16 channels) passband 20-450hz, has QVGA screen, 1GB removable storage.
  • also see "grasp recognition from myoelectric signals" images/474_1.pdf

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: typing keyboard bitrate probability reaching bandwidth date: 12-07-2011 02:35 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

From Scott MacKenzie:

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: moral saints ethics personal Kant date: 05-01-2009 19:49 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Moral Saints by Susan Wolf

  • yes.
  • (to paraphrase:) "nothing is a good substitute for compelling personal ideals. "
  • (quote:) Perhaps what I have already said is enough to make some people begin to regard the absence of moral saints in their lives as a blessing. For there comes a point in the listing of virtues that a moral saint is likely to have that one might naturally begin to wonder whether the moral saint isn't, after all, too good - if not too good for his own good, but rather too good for hiw own well being. For the moral virtues [...] are apt to crowd out the nonmoral virtues, as well as many of the interests and personal characteristics that we generally think contribute to a healthy, well-rounded, richly developed character.
    • I agree with this, and it feels good to read this - it feels good to be justified in being another somewhat selfish, somewhat altruistic human. I imagine what she is trying to say is that extreme morality, perhaps like any extreme (and I'm cautious in apply this very broad generalization), is bad.
  • Roughly, perfectly moral people never discover anything really interesting, because discovery like this requires passion and selfishness of purpose: selfishess to pursue one's own intense interests.
  • (paraphrase) One would hope that moral figures, paragons even, would be not just moral but accomplished and attractive in nonmoral ways too. The attractiveness of most celebrities certainly does not hinge on their morality - rather it hinges on simply, how unusual, impassioned, and dominant in personality they are; yet they are not characteristically immoral.
    • Again I think this favors the mixture model..
    • On prefers the blunt, tactless, and opinionated Betsy Trotwood to the unfailingly kind and patient Agnes Copperfield.
  • (quote:) There seems to be a limit to the ammount of morality that we can stand.
  • (quote:) Morality itself does not seem to be a suitable object of passion.
    • cf. music or sports - Things which give us immense and immediate pleasure. This is what I think is necessary to sustain passion.
    • When someone gives up personal pleasures for moral obligations, one wonders not at how moral that person is, but rather how little he she loves the other things.
    • This may be because moral saints are unattractive because they make us feel uncomfortable - they expose our thoughts, vices, and flaws. Well, we don't want to give up activities that we enjoy (for more moral occupations). duh.
  • A utilitarian saint may observe that personal goals and interests are practically moral because the both enhance the happiness of the owner, as well as the happiness of those with whom the owner associates. Maximize integral given a realistic model of human behavior, yea mofos.
    • A utilitarian moral saint would then encourage others to pursue goals that are happiness-producing and attainable with a normal person's reach.
    • Ultimately this forces the argument that the utilitarian moral saint should give up sainthood (if not utilitarianism?)
    • It is to say that the hierarchy of valuations of actions, ideals, opinions, and judgments, is not exclusively hierarchal with morality at the top. Morality may be the most important, but it is not the only important criteria.
      • Morality may be the consequence of (some) humans desire to reduce things too much - to overfit the model, so to speak. It's like applying {723} to your life.
      • (quote:) The role morality plays in the development of our characters and the shape of our practical deliberations need neither be that of a universal medium through which all other values must be translated nor of an ever-present filter through which all other values must pass.
  • This is all observed from a very western viewpoint - but what about Zen Buddism? (subtext: I think is that these people are still seeking something through their studies and meditations (it is still goal directed behavior). They are frustrated by the temporal-difference structure of the reward signaling in us mammals, but abrogating it's activity does nothing to change it's homeostasis. Or maybe it does??)

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ref: bookmarks-0 tags: Alan Rudolph DARPA Miguel Nicolelis date: 03-10-2009 21:19 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Alan Rudolph:

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: blog resume inspire layout design date: 03-02-2009 16:42 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]


  • great examples of resumes, and the right attitude to go with them.
  • inforgraphic resume - cool!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: bell labs history DSP innovation invention date: 12-15-2008 04:12 gmt revision:0 [head]


  • again, to be annotated after break!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: code laws lawyers programming date: 11-28-2008 04:54 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://www.linux-mag.com/id/7187 -- has a very interesting and very well applied analogy between programs and laws. I am inclined to believe that they really are not all that different; legalese is structured and convoluted the way it is because it is, in effect, a programming language for laws, hence must be precise and unambiguous. Furthermore, the article is well written and evidences structured and balanced thought (via appropriate references to the real world). And he uses Debian ;-)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: goodbrush paintings favorite date: 11-24-2008 03:03 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

hopefully these links don't move..

I like these 'paints', too. Did you show them to me a long time ago? I remember someone showing them to me in the past and I am wondering if you were the one. -- Ana

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ref: bookmark-2006.07 tags: BMI BCI EEG bibliography Stephan Scott date: 09-07-2008 19:54 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]



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ref: bookmark-0 tags: murder cerebrum PET scan Adrian Raine violence prefrontal corpus callosum amygdala activation brain scan date: 08-29-2008 14:32 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=3066 -- great article, with a well thought out, delicate treatment of the ethical/moral/ legal issues created by the interaction between the biological roots of violence (or knowlege thereof) and legal / social systems. He posits that there must be a continuum between ratinoal free will and irrational, impulsive violent behavior, with people biased to both by genetics, development, traumatic head injury, and substance abuse (among others).

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: blackfin robotics date: 06-17-2008 15:10 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

these guys use the blackfin, too: http://www.surveyor.com/ check out the board - very clean and neat!

The robot itself - with tank treads and a radio - costs $465

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: jocaml ocaml join calculus date: 06-17-2008 15:04 gmt revision:0 [head]

why do threads suck in ocaml? because join calculus is better! (well maybe) http://jocaml.inria.fr/

example of jocaml working well (indeed, faster than everything else): http://eigenclass.org/hiki/wide-finder-conclusions

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: memory supermemo leraning psychology Hermann Ebbinghaus date: 05-08-2008 15:25 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://www.wired.com/medtech/health/magazine/16-05/ff_wozniak -- wonderful article, well written. Leaves you with a sense of Piotr Wozniak (SuperMemo's inventor) crazy, slightly surreal, impassioned, purposeful, but self-regressive (and hence fundamentally stationary) life.

  • Quote: SuperMemo was like a genie that granted Wozniak a wish: unprecedented power to remember. But the value of what he remembered depended crucially on what he studied, and what he studied depended on his goals, and the selection of his goals rested upon the efficient acquisition of knowledge, in a regressive function that propelled him relentlessly along the path he had chosen.
  • http://www.wired.com/images/article/magazine/1605/ff_wozniak_graph_f.jpg
  • Quote: This should lead to radically improved intelligence and creativity. The only cost: turning your back on every convention of social life.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: C lisp programming unix worse better XML JSON date: 04-29-2008 18:21 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

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ref: bookmarks-0 tags: OCaml books date: 04-05-2008 22:20 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

Ocaml books / references:

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: software visualization C++ sgv date: 03-17-2008 19:44 gmt revision:9 [8] [7] [6] [5] [4] [3] [head]


  • looks like a good way to understand a large amount of code quickly. I've been waiting for a product like this for some time now!
    • I secretly hoped, given the name, that it would produce SVG files. It turns out otherwise: I'm just dyslexic :)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Ocaml python paradox programming finance date: 03-10-2008 21:29 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

  • this trading firm used OCaml, apparently to exclusion: http://www.janestcapital.com/yaron_minsky-cufp_2006.pdf
  • they also reference the python paradox. interesting, I'll have to check into Ocaml.
  • or, rather, Lisp. this article is quite convincing!
    • quote: If you're trying to solve a hard problem with a language that's too low-level, you reach a point where there is just too much to keep in your head at once.
    • quote: Any sufficiently complicated C or Fortran program contains an ad hoc informally-specified bug-ridden slow implementation of half of Common Lisp.
      • well, yes, this happened a bit in BMI with variables that were indexed by name :(
  • also see this excellent, extensive article.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: windows service pack date: 02-15-2008 14:06 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

windows is retarded:


I got this error installing service pack 2 on a triple-boot MacBook.

  • I agree! I also agree that if (computer) geeks would make a more user-friendly linux with better open office, we would all switch to linux. But for now we'll have to stick with the retarded windows :( -- ana/poison

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Delgado Bulls microstimulation ICMS control implant date: 01-06-2008 18:05 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]


  • stimulated the caudate to stop the charging bull.
  • interesting account of the later part of his life spent in Spain, when his popularity wained
  • Delgado still appears to have some quite radical tendencies, such as belief in the inexorable advance of technology, even if it is immoral/unethical.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Ruby gmail imap migration date: 12-20-2007 18:03 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://wonko.com/article/554 -- niice :)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: DSP filter webdesign fisher book date: 12-12-2007 06:15 gmt revision:0 [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: particle_filter unscented monte_carlo MCMC date: 12-11-2007 16:46 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]


  • covers both the particle filter and the unscented kalman filter ... the unscented kalman filter is used as the proposal distribution.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: ECG wireless nordic quasar date: 12-07-2007 21:13 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: DSP Benford's law Fourier transform book date: 12-07-2007 06:14 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

http://www.dspguide.com/ch34.htm -- awesome!!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: WiMax Wifi radio spectrum licensing FCC date: 12-04-2007 23:45 gmt revision:0 [head]

spectrum options for broadband wireless

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: perl rails ruby CGI BBC date: 12-03-2007 15:55 gmt revision:0 [head]

BBC deploys perl-on-rails in their highly restricted production environment.

  • faster than ruby (of course)
  • good discussion on the page - references things like http://open.nytimes.com/
  • one comment suggests TAR & gzipping your webpages to avoid a filesystem overloaded by too many files. You can index to the TARed files with a simple byte offset -- neat!!
  • also references perl Catalyst and CGI::Application

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Ed Boyden Channelrhodopsin date: 11-26-2007 18:57 gmt revision:5 [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

http://edboyden.org/05.09.boyden.html (2005) -- or just http://edboyden.org/

  • they also have a "light-activated chloride pump, halorhodopsin"
  • clinical trials of channelrhodopsin are proceeding using a virus which targets neurons; hypothetically, this is to be used to treat psychoses or to enhance memory, though the former sounds like a much better application than the latter.
  • he has a bunch of other interesting engineering projects, including a master's thesis on RFID using DDS, quantum computing using NMR, MEMS accelerometer...
  • also check Karl Deisseroth's website : http://www.stanford.edu/group/dlab/, e.g. the resources section -- ana
    • the cDNAs for the two channels, in many sub-forms, are available on the site, almost like free software. very neat.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: blackfin BF537 uClinux webserver USB2 vmware date: 11-21-2007 22:32 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://www.camsig.co.uk/ -- blackfin is hot like chernobyl. 1" sq 600mhz webserver etc.

  • uses NET2272 high-speed USB-2.0 peripheral from PLX technology.
  • has a 10/100 ethernet mac w/o magnetics
  • 99 GBP
  • specsheet - no power consumption figures
  • attaches with a rubberized compression connector - no solder required!
  • Develop programs with a VMware virtual appliance (openSuSE 10.2) - brilliant! (though the download is HUGE ... and hosted by amazon)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: internet communication tax broadband election? date: 11-21-2007 22:18 gmt revision:6 [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]


Consumers also pay high taxes for telecommunication services, averaging about 13 percent on some telecom services, similar to the tax rate on tobacco and alcohol, Mehlman said. One tax on telecom service has remained in place since the 1898 Spanish-American War, when few U.S. residents had telephones, he noted.

"We think it's a mistake to treat telecom like a luxury and tax it like a sin," he said.

from: The internet could run out of capacity in two years


  • I bet this will turn into a great excuse for your next president not to invest on health, but rather on internet. --ana
  • Humm.. I think it is meant to be more of a wake-up call to the backhaul and ISP companies, which own most of the networking capacity (not the government). I imagine there will be some problems, people complain, it gets fixed.. hopefully soon. What is really amazing is the total amount of data the internet is expected to produce - 161 exabytes!! -- tlh
  • They won't upgrade their capacity. After all, the telcos spent a lot of money doing just that in the dot-bomb days. No, instead they will spend their money on technologies and laws that allow them to charge more for certain types of packets or for delivering some packets faster than others. You think it's a coincidence that Google is buying up dark fiber? --jeo

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: puzzle maths date: 11-17-2007 07:39 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://www.collegepuzzlechallenge.com/ --insanely hard!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: open source cellphone public network date: 11-13-2007 21:28 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]


  • kinda high-level, rather amorphous, but generally in the right direction. The drive is there, the time is coming, but we are not quite there yet..
  • have some designs for wireless repeaters, based on 802.11g mini-pci cards in a SBC, 3 repeaters. total cost about $1000
  • also interesting: http://www.opencellphone.org/index.php?title=Main_Page

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: EMG apples Japan food date: 11-12-2007 17:51 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Electromyography of Eating Apples: Influences of Cooking, Cutting, and Peeling

  • good lord, this is retarded research!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: debian gcc compiler error lenny date: 11-10-2007 03:57 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

http://forums.debian.net/viewtopic.php?t=21166 yea, what's going on here?

copy of message:

Hello, so, I've tried to compile the most simple of programs with g++. I'm on debian 'testing', a recent install. I have separate /home and / partitions, where the / partition was wiped & reinstalled after i deleted most of /usr/bin (doh!!!!). Anyway, I was running stable, but now am running testing. Most of my settings on /home transfered over .. admirably well!

But, I cannot compile :( :( after trying to compile my favorite software (kicad, yum), and failing, i turned back to a test:

#include <stdio.h>
int main(void){
	printf("hello, world\n"); 
tried to compile with :
g++ hello_world.cpp -g -v -Wall -o hello

resulting in this noise:

Using built-in specs. Target: i486-linux-gnu Configured with: ../src/configure -v --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran,objc,obj-c++,treelang --prefix=/usr --enable-shared --with-system- zlib --libexecdir=/usr/lib --without-included-gettext --enable-threads=posix --enable-nls --with-gxx-include-dir=/usr/include/c++/4.1.3 --program-suffix=-4.1 --enable-__cxa_atexit --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-libstdcxx-debug --enable-mpfr --enable-checking=release i486-l inux-gnu Thread model: posix gcc version 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Debian 4.1.2-16) /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/cc1plus -quiet -v -D_GNU_SOURCE hello_world.cpp -quiet -dumpbase hello_world.cpp -mtune=generic -auxb ase hello_world -g -Wall -version -o /tmp/ccIXOF5F.s ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/local/include/i486-linux-gnu" ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/../../../../i486-linux-gnu/include" ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/include/i486-linux-gnu" #include "..." search starts here: #include <...> search starts here: /usr/include/c++/4.1.3 /usr/include/c++/4.1.3/i486-linux-gnu /usr/include/c++/4.1.3/backward /usr/local/include /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/include /usr/include End of search list. GNU C++ version 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Debian 4.1.2-16) (i486-linux-gnu) compiled by GNU C version 4.1.3 20070831 (prerelease) (Debian 4.1.2-16). GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072 Compiler executable checksum: 50856c9e65492124a77f9baaf4dc8b80 as -V -Qy -o /tmp/ccOGkgre.o /tmp/ccIXOF5F.s GNU assembler version 2.18 (i486-linux-gnu) using BFD version (GNU Binutils for Debian) 2.18 /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/collect2 --eh-frame-hdr -m elf_i386 --hash-style=both -dynamic-linker /lib/ld-linux.so.2 -o hello /us r/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/../../../../lib/crt1.o /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/../../../../lib/crti.o /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-g nu/4.1.3/crtbegin.o -L/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3 -L/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3 -L/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/../../.. /../lib -L/lib/../lib -L/usr/lib/../lib /tmp/ccOGkgre.o -lstdc++ -lm -lgcc_s -lgcc -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/c rtend.o /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.1.3/../../../../lib/crtn.o

ok looks good - try: ./hello bash: ./hello: Permission denied then: gdb hello Starting program: /home/tlh24/hello /bin/bash: /home/tlh24/hello: Permission denied /bin/bash: /home/tlh24/hello: Success

success? not quite. ok, try another thing : ldd hello ldd: exited with unknown exit code (126)

what is going on here? ideas? cat hello yeilds ELF4 file with some GCC strings + crt stuff. looks okay, yes executable bits set ????

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: emate wireless date: 11-09-2007 17:02 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://geektechnique.org/projectlab/669/getting-your-emate-wireless -- self-explanatory. now, all i need to do is get a waveLAN card (as well as reinstall classic on my g4)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: IEC fusion Bussard tokamak date: 10-31-2007 22:38 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: RonPaul American presidential candidate libertarian date: 10-30-2007 22:38 gmt revision:0 [head]


  • claims that the solution to our problems is to deregulate environmental control - e.g. disempower the EPA, maybe even dissolve it, and allow litigation and property rights to regulate pollution. That is, if a polluter destroys some resource say a river, then another user of same resource will sue them for damages & polluting.
    • This is retarded because it replaces one system (hopefully transparent laws) with another system (wasteful litigation), the latter which will be codified anyway within the legal system. I would argue that it is more efficient to simply fix the original system directly, and eliminate this bureaucracy which he complains. Otherwise, it will take some time for the 'bugs' in the legal, litigation based regulatory system to be eliminated.
      • a centralized authority is arguably more efficient & direct in deciding say which compounds are pollutants and which are not, whereas an iterative, litigation based system may be eventually more accurate but possibly more abstruse & opaque (e.g. you have to look up many many cases to figure out the 'law') and may possibly take more time.
    • Perhaps, though, he is correct on one thing: by making the end users (people subject to pollution) more directly involved, they will have more power, hence 'law' will more directly represent collective interest.
    • My conclusion: the present system includes some end-user litigation; it makes not sense to overhaul it. It only makes sense to tweak the 'coefficients' on the control paths, or possibly add other control paths.
      • however, has anyone proved that collective interest is sufficiently far-sighted, pragmatic, and free from spurious manipulation by the media. This is why we have a republic, I guess.
  • He does not support the Kyoto protocol. not the 'free-market'. well, he is a libertarian after all.
  • He thinks it is a good idea to de-regulate large polluters like coal fired electricity plants; he claims that in a free market economy the costs of a dirtier energy source will be internalized and the consumers will choose the optimal source.
    • This is naive, too. Companies will manipulate those effected by the pollution to make them forget about it, perhaps by simply bribing them. Besides, it makes sense to have a centralized regulator where the expertise, intelligence, and data can be concentrated. But, then again, this system was setup itself by the public (?) which therefore must have some degree of farsight, therefore the public can be responsible for holding companies responsible for selfish, greedy & polluting practices. (I would argue not - the public and/or those farsighted leaders - have set up centralized agencies for offloading the effort of regulation & enforcement.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: cybernetics introduction 1957 Ross Ashby feedback date: 10-26-2007 00:50 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/books/IntroCyb.pdf -- dated, but still interesting, useful, a book in and of itself!

  • cybernetics = "the study of systems that are open to energy but closed to information and control"
    • cybernetics also = the study of systems whose complexity cannot be reduced away, or rather whose complexity is integral to its function, e.g. the human brain, the world economy. here simple examples have little explanatory power.
  • book, for the most part, avoids calculus, and deals instead with discrete time and sums (i think?)
  • with exercises!! for example, page 60 - cybernetics of a haunted house:)
  • random thought: a lot of this stuff seems dependent on the mathematics of statistical physics...

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: bluetooth tutorial specification date: 10-22-2007 16:56 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]


  • has concise details for how the apparently complex bluetooth protocol functions.
Taking a walk inside blutooth EDR
  • bluetooth 1 - 1.2 (1mbps) uses gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK), with a frequency deviation of +-160khz
  • bluetooth 2.0 EDR (2mbps) uses pi/4 differential quaternary phase-shift keying (DQPSK). The receiver does not have to know the phase of the transmitter for this. Two bit are transmitted per symbol with this scheme; hence the symbol rate stays the same as bluetooth 1.
  • bluetooth 2 (3mbps) uses 8-differential phase-shift keying to transmit 3 bits / symbol, with the same effective symbol rate. The receiver must know the phase of the transmitter.
  • each of these modulation formats is specified in the packet header, and communication rate is negotiated upon establishing a connection.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: wideband oxygen sensor diffusion nernst lambda date: 10-22-2007 03:41 gmt revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: neural recording companies electrodes wireless bioamplifier germany date: 10-22-2007 01:39 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

http://www.neuroconnex.com/ -- looks like they have some excellent products, but not sure how to purchase them.

  • links to specification sheets are broken.
  • they have a closed-loop stimulator for treatment of Parkinsons etc. cool!
also see Mega biomonitor. (14 bit resolution)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: volvo 850 s70 turbo boost wastegate MBC ECU date: 10-20-2007 18:28 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://au.geocities.com/ozbrick850/engine-turbo-keithspage.html -- excellent discussions of the volvo 850 / S70 T5

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: blackfin ARM buglabs opensource fsf java date: 10-19-2007 20:14 gmt revision:7 [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [head]

buglabs, makers of plug n' play configurable handheld platform based on open-source technologies

  • uses the ARM11 processor.
    • 0.24mw/mhz; blackfin: 0.15mw/mhz (measured, by me; DSP was running relatively intense elliptic filters on 2m samples/sec data); blackfin wins again!
  • also uses Java. beh, I don't like java at all. Lua is way better.
  • see their list of open-source software that they use/employ, eg. http://aptana.com/ & http://www.blackdown.org/ (blackdown is a port of Sun's JDK to Linux).
  • references http://emoglen.law.columbia.edu/publications/maine-speech.html -- information should be free!
    • quote: [...]the chief technology officer of the Microsoft Corporation, Craig Mundie, made a public speech, in which he said that my client the Free Software Foundation (the Free Software Foundation, and only the Free Software Foundation) was destroying the global software industry. hah!
    • software in the twenty-first century is becoming a public utility, not a product
    • goal of a programmer: Write once, run everywhere. minimize duplicated effort.
    • It's an emergent property of connected human minds that they do create. :) :)
    • still, you have to pay the programmers and developers .. like me .. they need to live. even if the software is free, there must be some way of recouping the cost of making software, information, and music. This is going to require management, probably governmental, but without obviating the natural human inclination to compete.
      • Actually, I dare venture that even without present-day capitalism & with proper education, humans will compete, better things will be created.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: blackfin coding practice software engineering institute Carnegie mellon ucalgary date: 10-17-2007 14:26 gmt revision:0 [head]

Little Stupid Details - what they are, and how to avoid them

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Saab water injection neuralnet 900 turbo date: 10-15-2007 16:09 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

Self-learning fuzzy neural network with optimal on-line leaning for water injection control of a turbocharged automobile.

  • for a 1994 - 1998 Saab 900 SE (like mine).
  • also has details on the trionic 5 ECU, including how saab detects knock through pre-ignition ionization measurement, and how it subsequently modifies ignition timing & boost pressure.
  • images/467_1.pdf

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: quotes Helen Keller teaching education date: 10-09-2007 17:34 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]


  • Only some 12% of a national sample of almost 400,000 teachers received less then average ratings from students. John Centra (heh!)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: embedded linux eCos ARM intellectualProperty IP MIPS Xscale MIT date: 10-08-2007 17:55 gmt revision:0 [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: quotes wisdom economist date: 10-08-2007 03:05 gmt revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: architecture travel places to see Spencer Tunic date: 09-18-2007 14:28 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: petaflop gigaflop RIKEN protein folding MDGRAPE date: 09-17-2007 14:55 gmt revision:0 [head]

pretty impressive project, especially considering how much time and money they spent ($15 m, 6 man-months to do the verilog (only!)) http://www.hotchips.org/archives/hc16/3_Tue/1_HC16_Sess6_Pres1_bw.pdf

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: language learning year french brain hack date: 09-03-2007 04:13 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

http://mirror.mricon.com/french/french.html -- "how i learned french in a year"

  • verbiste : verb conjugator for linux (Gnome)
  • When talking about software, it was FredBrooks in TheMythicalManMonth who said that people will always reinvent the wheel because it is intrinsically easier and more fun to write your own code than it is read someone else's code.

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ref: bookmarks-0 tags: neurotechnology companies date: 08-30-2007 17:02 gmt revision:0 [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: I2S bust serial protocol DAC date: 08-27-2007 16:54 gmt revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: optimization function search matlab linear nonlinear programming date: 08-09-2007 02:21 gmt revision:0 [head]


very nice collection of links!!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: tab textarea javascript date: 08-02-2007 23:11 gmt revision:0 [head]


how to make a text area where tab key inserts 'tab' into the text (like here - for tables!) "


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: blackfin ELF freestanding applications boot date: 08-01-2007 14:40 gmt revision:0 [head]


very good, very instructive.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: RF penetration tissue 1978 date: 07-24-2007 04:15 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]


  • from the perspective of NMR imaging.
  • gives the penetration depths & phase-shifts for RF waves from 1 - 100Mhz. I can obly assume that it is much worse for 400Mhz and 2.4Ghz.
    • that said, Zarlink's MICS transceiver works from the GI tract at 400mhz with low power, suggesting that the attenuation can't be too too great.
  • includes equations used to derive these figures.
  • document describing how various antenna types are effected by biological tissue, e.g. a human head.

even more interesting: wireless brain machine interface

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: phase converter gilbert cell analog multiplication RF bipolar transistors phase detector modulator date: 07-23-2007 20:48 gmt revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: BGA PCB design via layout Intel power date: 07-14-2007 00:29 gmt revision:0 [head]


  • describes PCB layout for Intel mobile 945GMS chipset (the same that is in Ana's Macbook)
  • suggest 10/20/28 via (drill diameter/??/pad size, what units? think)
  • interesting information on the making of the die substrate, too (ultra-fine lines! 30um vias too?)
  • [http://www.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/volume10issue02/art05_945GMS_SFF_Low_Voltage/p07_gmch.htm shows a diagram of memory bandwidth usage - most of it is used to refresh the LCD, which costs power. This section also has useful & interesting information on minimizing power consumption.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: blackfin documents gerber jtag date: 06-23-2007 22:21 gmt revision:7 [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: federal reserve video printing money economics date: 06-01-2007 20:32 gmt revision:0 [head]


need to learn more about this infamous federal reserve!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: linux dual boot grub chainloader windows date: 05-31-2007 16:55 gmt revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: magstripe magnetic stripe reader writer encoder date: 05-31-2007 02:49 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

notes on reading magstripe cards:

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: bluetooth SCO ACL TCP FEC DH1 date: 05-28-2007 20:11 gmt revision:0 [head]

  • paper which suggests that voice and other data should be carried over ACL links rather than SCO links, thus making the protocol and bandwidth allocation simpler.
    • explains how HV1 is high-quality voice and is protected by 1/3 forward-error-encoding. HV3, in contrast, has no encoding/ no error correction schemes, hence is lower power (less transmit time).
    • ACL links mus precede SCO links in bluetooth.
    • DH1 packets good for TCP.. what's DH1?
  • Setting up a bluetooth packet transport link
    • excellent background information :) !
    • also only examines ACL links.
    • DH1 are single-slot packets of 30 bytes each, which have no FEC encoding
    • the question why the bluetooth protocol is so comlicated.. good question indeed!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: postmodernism pseudoscience Alan Sokal date: 04-23-2007 03:47 gmt revision:0 [head]


  • idea: postmodernism attacks science by claiming that all observations are inherently subjective andn unsupported by evidence; pseudoscience attacks science by claiming subjective, unsupported assertions to be supported by the method andn courpus of scientific thought. One robs science of credibility, the other attempts to profit from scientific credibility due to its success in predicting physical phenomena.
    • Usually, knowledge of the field in question is enough to highlight pseudoscience.. and postmodernism (by his definition) can be spotted by its claims/lack thereof.
  • claims Judeanism & Christianity contain sections of pseudoscience
  • (pope) John Paul II is a pseudoscientist?

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: FPGA verilog VHDL hacking hardware prototype date: 04-09-2007 22:34 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]



http://www.ixo.de/info/usb_jtag/ open source USB Jtag adapter, works with dragon (I think!)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: DARPA projects quantum electron spin date: 04-04-2007 20:39 gmt revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: book information_theory machine_learning bayes probability neural_networks mackay date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/mackay/itila/book.html -- free! (but i liked the book, so I bought it :)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: monte_carlo MCMC particle_filter probability bayes filtering biblography date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www-sigproc.eng.cam.ac.uk/smc/papers.html -- sequential monte carlo methods. (bibliography)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: machine_learning todorov motor_control date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

Iterative Linear Quadratic regulator design for nonlinear biological movement systems

  • paper for an international conference on informatics in control/automation/robotics

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: metal_halide projector light CRI Venture Osram Phillips date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

Overview: a projector light should have good luminous efficiency, have a long life, and most importantly have plenty of energy in the red region of the spectrum. most metal halides have yellow/green lines and blue lines, few have good red lines.

http://www.osram.no/brosjyrer/english/K01KAP5_en.pdf in 1000 watt, the Osram Powerstar HQI-TS 1000/d/s looks the best: CRI > 90, 5900K color temperature. Unfortunately, I cannot seem to find any american places to buy this bulb, nor can i determine its average life. It can be bought, at a price, from http://www.svetila.com/eProdaja/product_info.php/products_id/442 { n.b. the osram HMI bulbs are no good-the lifetime is too short}

In 400 watt, the Eye Clean Arc MT400D/BUD looks quite good, with a CRI of 90, 6500K color temp. http://www.eyelighting.com/cleanarc.html. EYE also has a ceraarc line, but the 400w bulb is not yet in production (and it has a lower color temperature, 4000K). Can be bought from http://www.businesslights.com/ (N.B. they have spectral charts for many of the lights!)

  • I've also seen reference to the Phillips mastercolor line: http://www.nam.lighting.philips.com/us/ecatalog/hid/pdf/p-5497c.pdf
    • these are ceramic HPS white replacements ('retro-white'). 85CRI, 4000K color temperature, reasonably efficient over the life of the bulb.
  • Ushio
  • Venture lighting has a 400W naturalWhite e-lamp (5000k, 90+ CRI). For use with both pulse-start and the electronic ballasts that they sell.

and fYI, the electrodelass bulbs are made by Osram and are called "ICETRON". They are rather expensive, but last 1e5 hours (!). Typical output is 80 lumens/watt

more things of interest:

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Unscented sigma_pint kalman filter speech processing machine_learning SDRE control UKF date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: unscented kalman filter square-root Merwe date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://hardm.ath.cx/pdf/unscentedKalmanFilter.pdf -- the square root transform. contains a nice tabulation of the original algorithm, which i what I use.

http://hardm.ath.cx/pdf/unscentedKalmanFilter2000.pdf -- the original, with examples of state, parameter, and dual estimation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalman_filter -- wikipedia page, also has the unscented kalman filter

http://www.cs.unc.edu/~welch/kalman/media/pdf/Julier1997_SPIE_KF.pdf - Julier and Ulhmann's original paper. a bit breif.

http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~murphyk/Papers/Julier_Uhlmann_mar04.pdf -- Julier and Ulhmann's invited paper, quite excellent.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: robot kinematics lagrangian dynamics date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Shadmehr torque forces jacobian date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

The Computational Neurobiology of Reaching and Pointing - online notes

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: eeg oss openeeg recording linux date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: STDP hebbian learning dopamine reward robot model ISO date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]


  • idea: have a gating signal for the hebbian learning.
    • pure hebbian learning is unsable; it will lead to endless amplification.
  • method: use a bunch of resonators near sub-critically dampled.
  • application: a simple 2-d robot that learns to seek food. not super interesting, but still good.
  • Uses ISO learning - Isotropic sequence order learning.
  • somewhat related: runbot!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: motor learning control Wolpert Ghahramani date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]


  • the curse of dimensionality: there are about 600 muscles in the human body; 2^600 >> than the # of atoms in the universe! we must structure this control problem.
  • there are about 200,000 alpha motor neurons.
  • damage to parietal cortex can lead to an inability to maintain state estimates of the limb (and other objects?)
  • damage to pareital cortex can lead to and inability to mentally simulate movement with the affected hand.
  • damage to the left pareital cortex can lead to a relative inability to determine wheither viewed movements are ones own or not.
  • state prediction can reduce the effect of delays in sensorimotor feedback loops.
    • example: soleus and gastrocinemus tightent before lifting a heavy load with the arms.
  • the primate CNS models both the expected sensory feedback and represents the likelihood of the sensory feedback given the context. e.g. if people think that they are moving, they will compensate for non-existent coriolis forces.
  • ''how are we able to learn a variety of contexts?
    • when subjects try to learn two different dynamics (e.g. forward and reverse on sideskates), interference occurs when they are presented in rapid sucession, but not when they are separated by several hours.)
  • has a good list of refs.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: ISO learning reflex inverse controller Porr date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

Iso learning approximates a solution to the inverse controller problem in an usupervised behavioral paradigm http://hardm.ath.cx/pdf/isolearning2002.pdf

  1. robot/actor whatever has a reflex after the presentation of a reward.
  2. the ISO learning mechanism learns to expect its own reflex -> anticipate actions, react at an appropriate time.
    1. a fixed reflex loop prevents arbitraryness by defining initial behavioral goal.
  3. iso means isotropic: all inputs are the same, and all can be used for learning.
  4. learning is proportional to the derivative of the output.
  • the central advantage of an (ideal) feed-forward controller is that it acts without the feedback-induced delay. The fatally damaging sluggishness of feedback systems makes this a highly desirable feature.
  • see figure 4 in the local paper. this basically looks like the cerebellum.. sorta. the controller takes predictive signal, and with this prior information, is able to learn the correct response to the disturbance.
  • they also include an interesting comparison to Sutton & Barto's reinforcement learning:
    • in ISO learning, the weights stabilize if a particular input condition is achieved;
    • in reinforcement learning, the weights are stabilized when a certain output condition is reached.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: thalamus basal ganglia neuroanatomy centromedian red nucleus images date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.neuroanatomy.wisc.edu/coro97/contents.htm --coronal sections through the thalamus, very nice!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: neuroanatomy pulvinar thalamus superior colliculus image gray brainstem date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gray719.png --great, very useful!

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: google parallel_computing GFS algorithm mapping reducing date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: machine_learning algorithm meta_algorithm date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

Boost learning or AdaBoost - the idea is to update the discrete distribution used in training any algorithm to emphasize those points that are misclassified in the previous fit of a classifier. sensitive to outliers, but not overfitting.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: plexon documenation data file structure reading plx date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: graffiti art urban photography date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.beautifulcrime.com/public/exhibitions/ Need flash to view the site.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: urban art san_francisco california vector_art mod_art store date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: pythong c howto date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


here you go timmyh, enjoy..


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: debian linux sarge apache2 subversion install ssl date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://mattl.co.uk/apache2subversiondebianhowto.html pretty good. SSL and subversion seems to cause problems with apache2 on this 'unstable' Debian build - it complains of a BAD MAC header after a deterministic number of bytes are transmitted. Therefore I moved to port 80 from 443.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: neural_networks machine_learning matlab toolbox supervised_learning PCA perceptron SOM EM date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.ncrg.aston.ac.uk/netlab/index.php n.b. kinda old. (or does that just mean well established?)

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: motivation willpower dicipline date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: job_search professional employment wisdom date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: clay kiln pottery ceramics date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

705 Foster St.
Durham, NC 27701
(919) 530 - 8355

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: linear_algebra solution simultaneous_equations GPGPU GPU LUdecomposition clever date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: spiking neuron models learning SRM spike response model date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: brazilian consulate miami visa date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Numenta Bayesian_networks date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


  • shared, hierarchal representation reduces memory requirements, training time, and mirrors the structure of the world.
  • belief propagation techniques force the network into a set of mutually consistent beliefs.
  • a belief is a form of spatio-temporal quantization: ignore the unusual.
  • a cause is a persistent or recurring structure in the world - the root of a spatiotemporal pattern. This is a simple but important concept.
    • HTM marginalize along space and time - they assume time patterns and space patterns, not both at the same time. Temporal parameterization follows spatial parameterization.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Bayes Baysian_networks probability probabalistic_networks Kalman ICA PCA HMM Dynamic_programming inference learning date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~murphyk/Bayes/bnintro.html very, very good! many references, well explained too.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: microdrilling surgery craniotomy impedance date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


Pathformer is an electrosurgical hand-held meidcal device that cuts holes in nails and skin. It operates on mesoscissioning technology, cutting the nail/skin with a microcutting tool, using skin impedance as a feedback for stopping the cutting intervention. Pathformer is approved by FDA for creating holes in nails for treating subungual hematoma (black toe).

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: machine_learning date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


A related machine learning classifier, the relevance vector machine (RVM), has recently been introduced, which, unlike SVM, incorporates probabalistic output (probability of membership) through Bayesian inference. Its decision function depends on fewer input variables that SVM, possibly allowing better classification for small data sets with high dimensionality.

  • input data here is a number of glaucoma-correlated parameters.
  • " SVM is a machine classification method that directly minimizes the classification error without requiring a statistical data model. SVM uses a kernel function to find a hyperplane that maximizes the distance (margin) between two classes (or more?). The resultant model is spares, depending only on a few training samples (support vectors).
  • The RVM has the same functional form as the SVM within a Bayesian framework. This classifier is a sparse Bayesian model that provides probabalistic predictions (e.g. probability of glaucoma based on the training samples) through bayesian inference.
    • RVM outputs probabilities of membership rather than point estimates like SVM

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: muscle artifial catalyst nanotubes shape-memory alloy date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: los_angeles california map pdf date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Linux device_drivers memory virtual_memory PCI address_translation date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: teflon PTFE bonding metal polytetrafluoroethylene tetraflouroethylene date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


block copolymer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copolymer

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: estimating software costs date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


very logical, well organized.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: OpenGL shaders vertex pixel fragment GLSL Linux programming C++ date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


easy to compile on my debian system - all the development libraries had debian packages!

also of interest :

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: wire bond machine date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

wire bonding whitepaper

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: information entropy bit rate matlab code date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


  • concise, well documented, useful.
  • number of bins = length of vector ^ (1/3).
  • information = sum(log (bincounts / prior) * bincounts) -- this is just the divergence, same as I do it.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: statistics logistic regression binomial logit BIC AIC SPSS date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


  • transform probabilities into logarithmic variables = logits

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: smith predictor motor control wolpert cerebellum machine_learning prediction date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


  • quote in reference to models in which the cerebellum works as a smith predictor, e.g. feedforward prediction of the behavior of the limbs, eyes, trunk: Motor performance based on the use of such internal models would be degraded if the model was inavailable or inaccurate. These theories could therefore account for dysmetria, tremor, and dyssynergia, and perhaps also for increased reaction times.
  • note the difference between inverse model (transforms end target to a motor plan) and inverse models 9is used on-line in a tight feedback loop).
  • The difficulty becomes one of detecting mismatches between a rapid prediction of the outcome of a movement and the real feedback that arrives later in time (duh! :)
  • good set of notes on simple simulated smith predictor performance.

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ref: notes bookmarks-0 tags: spike sorting bayes spectral_analysis date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: neural_recording recording_technology electrical engineering DSP date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: machine_learning classification entropy information date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/~lazy/ -- Lazy Learning.

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ref: notes, bookmark-0 tags: spikes action_potentials neurons subthreshold depolarization c.elegans date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

"Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity" http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v8/n9/full/nn1525.html

what they did:

  • expressed ChR2 receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons.
  • ChR2 is a rapidly-gated light-sensitive cation channel recently isolated from unicellular green alga
  • cells were transfected via lentivirus
  • caused spiking in cells by exposing them to 5-15ms flashes of blue light.
  • stimulation was reliable to 30hz
  • stimulated spikes had low jitter - 2ms or so.
  • light stimulation protocol was robust across different neurons.
  • expression of the light-gated channel did not alter the properties of the neurons or their health etc.
  • they think it might be applicable to in-vivo mamalian studies!
  • Subthreshold!
    • for many cellular and systems neuroscience processes subthreshold depolarizations convey physiologically significant information.
    • the neurons in c.elegans do not spike!
    • subthreshold depolarizations are potent for activating synapes-to-nucleus signaling
    • the relative timing of subthreshold and suprathreshold depolarizations can determine the direction of synaptic plasticity.
    • subthreshold depolarizations operate in the more linear regime of membrane voltage

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: linux command line tips rip record date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: poisson tutorial ISI date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.neuroscience.ucsf.edu/neurograd/courses/ns201b_2004/Miller/03-12-04_PoissonProcess.pdf http://robotics.caltech.edu/~zoran/Research/poisson/node1.html

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: perl regular expressions tutorial regex date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


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ref: bookmark-0 tags: mirror reflective projection lens design NEC optics date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]


very neat - and I'm surprised that they put all of this on the web! you can almost make one of these yourself with the information within.

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: training neural_networks with kalman filters date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

with the extended kalman filter, from '92: http://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/pub/people/rjw/kalman-ijcnn-92.ps

with the unscented kalman filter : http://hardm.ath.cx/pdf/NNTrainingwithUnscentedKalmanFilter.pdf

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: kalman filter introduction Maybeck 1979 date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://www.cs.unc.edu/~welch/media/pdf/maybeck_ch1.pdf -- great explanation!! really sensible!